Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy with a civil law system based on the Continental European model. The judicial system is an independent branch of the government and is divided into two parts: judicial courts and administrative courts.
The judicial courts handle civil and criminal cases and are organized into four levels: district courts, regional courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation, and the Supreme Administrative Court. The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest court in Bulgaria and is the court of last resort. It is the court that reviews and decides appeals of decisions made by lower courts.
The administrative courts handle cases related to the implementation of state laws, regulations, and other matters of public administration. Administrative courts are organized into three levels: regional administrative courts, the Supreme Administrative Court, and the Supreme Administrative Procurator.
The Supreme Judicial Council is the highest judicial body in Bulgaria and is composed of 19 members who are elected by a two-thirds majority of both houses of Parliament. The Supreme Judicial Council is responsible for appointing and dismissing judges, prosecutors, and other court personnel.
The Bulgarian Constitution guarantees citizens the right to a fair trial, the right to be informed of the charge and to be present at the trial, and the right to appeal a court decision. In addition, Bulgaria has ratified the European Convention on Human Rights and is a signatory to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.