Chile is a civil law country that operates under a codified legal system. The legal system of Chile is based on the civil law tradition, which is rooted in Roman law. It is a mixed legal system, incorporating elements derived from both French and German civil law traditions.
The primary source of law in Chile is the Constitution of Chile, which was adopted in 1980 and is the supreme law of the land. The Constitution contains a bill of rights, which guarantees basic human rights and freedoms.
The Chilean legal system is based on the principle of separation of powers. The government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch.
The executive branch is led by the President of Chile, who is elected to a four-year term by popular vote. The President has the power to appoint ministers, diplomats, and other high-ranking officials; to issue decrees and regulations; and to appoint the members of the Supreme Court.
The legislative branch is composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, which are elected by popular vote. The Senate is composed of 38 members, while the Chamber of Deputies is composed of 155 members.
The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which is composed of twenty members appointed by the President. The Supreme Court has the power to interpret the Constitution and the laws of Chile, and to direct the activities of the lower courts.
In addition to the Constitution and the laws passed by Congress, there are other sources of law in Chile. These include judicial decisions, administrative regulations, and customary law.
The legal system in Chile is further divided into two main categories: civil law and criminal law. Civil law is concerned with disputes between private parties, while criminal law is concerned with offenses against the public order.