Colombia is a presidential republic, and its legal system is based on a civil law system. The Constitution of Colombia, which was last amended in 1991, is the supreme law of the land. The legal system is divided into four branches: the ordinary justice system, the administrative justice system, the constitutional justice system, and the military justice system.
The ordinary justice system is divided into two levels: the Court of Justice, which is the highest court, and the Circuit Courts, which are the lower courts. This system is responsible for criminal and civil cases, as well as labor disputes.
The administrative justice system is responsible for resolving disputes between citizens and the government. This system is divided into three levels: the Council of State, the Administrative Courts, and the Administrative Courts of Cundinamarca.
The Constitutional Court is the highest court in the country and is responsible for protecting the rights of citizens enshrined in the Constitution. This court is composed of nine magistrates and has power to review laws and to declare laws unconstitutional.
The military justice system is responsible for dealing with crimes committed by members of the armed forces. This system is divided into two levels: the Military Justice Tribunal and the Military Court of Appeals.
Finally, Colombia has a separate justice system for indigenous populations. This system is based on traditional practices and customs, and is responsible for resolving disputes within indigenous communities.