The Czech Republic is a unitary state with a civil law system. The Czech Republic’s legal system is based on the civil law tradition, with limited elements of common law. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union and is subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice.
The Czech legal system is based on the Constitution of the Czech Republic, which was adopted in 1992 and amended in 2012. The Constitution defines the separation of powers and the basic human rights of citizens. It also establishes the Czech Republic as a democratic, unitary and social state.
The Czech Republic has a three-tier judicial system, with courts at the local, regional and supreme level. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and is the court of final appeal. Below this are regional courts, which are divided into civil, criminal, and administrative divisions. The lowest level of the judiciary is made up of local courts.
The Czech judicial system is complemented by a number of non-judicial bodies, including the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the General Prosecutor’s Office and the Office of the Ombudsman.
The Czech Republic also has a specialized court system, which includes the Supreme Economic Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Military Court and the Supreme Labour Court.
The Czech legal system is based on the principle of legality, which means that the law must be applied in a consistent manner and cannot be overruled by any other authority. The Czech Republic is a signatory to several international treaties and conventions, including the European Convention on Human Rights.