Egypt is a civil law country, which means that its legal system is based on a comprehensive, coherent, and inflexible body of laws. This legal system is derived from the Napoleonic Code, which was introduced to the country in 1883. Since then, Egypt has made a few modifications to its legal system, but the core principles have remained largely unchanged.
The legal system of Egypt is based on a civil law model and is divided into two main branches: the judicial branch, which is responsible for the court system and the interpretation of the law, and the legislative branch, which is responsible for creating new laws and amending existing ones.
The court system of Egypt consists of three levels: the Supreme Constitutional Court, the Courts of Appeal, and the Courts of First Instance. All matters relating to civil, commercial, criminal, and administrative law are adjudicated in these courts.
The Supreme Constitutional Court is the highest court in Egypt and is responsible for adjudicating matters relating to constitutional and human rights law. The Courts of Appeal are responsible for appeals from lower courts and for reviewing the decisions of the Supreme Constitutional Court. Finally, the Courts of First Instance are responsible for trying cases at the lowest level.
In addition to these court systems, Egypt also recognizes the use of customary law, which is based on ancient traditions and customs. This type of law is often used in rural areas, where it is more difficult to access the formal court systems.
The legal system of Egypt is largely based on French civil law and is heavily influenced by Islamic law, which is enshrined in the country’s Constitution. The Constitution of Egypt guarantees the right to a fair trial and access to justice, as well as the right to freedom of expression, assembly, and movement. It also protects the right to privacy and prohibits discrimination based on race, religion, gender, or political opinion.
Egypt is a member of the United Nations and the African Union, and is a signatory to a number of international treaties and conventions. These include the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.