Germany has a civil law system based on a comprehensive codified set of laws, as opposed to the common law systems found in Anglo-American countries. Its legal system is based on the principles of Roman law, which was codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis of Emperor Justinian. This code was later adapted and complemented by the German civil code, which was first issued in 1900 and is still in effect today.
The German legal system is based on a three-tiered system of courts, which consists of the federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Court of Justice and the regional courts. The Constitutional Court is the highest court in the country, and it is responsible for constitutional matters, such as the interpretation of the Basic Law. The Federal Court of Justice is the highest court in matters of civil and criminal law and the regional courts are responsible for lower-level matters.
The German legal system is also divided into two distinct branches – public law and private law. Public law deals with matters of the state and its citizens, such as criminal law, constitutional law and administrative law. Private law deals with matters between private individuals, such as contracts, inheritance law, family law and property law.
Germany also has a number of specialized courts, such as the Labor Court, the Tax Court and the Social Court. These courts are responsible for adjudicating matters related to their respective areas of law.
The German legal system is also highly decentralized, with 16 states having their own court systems and legal systems. Each state has its own legal code, and the laws and court systems in each state may vary from those in other states.