India is a federal republic with a parliamentary system of government. Its legal system is based on common law with some influences from civil law systems.
The Constitution of India is the supreme legal document of the country and the basis for all other laws. It provides for three branches of government – the executive, legislature, and judiciary.
The executive branch is headed by the President, who is the head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is elected by the members of the lower house of Parliament. The government is responsible for the implementation of laws and regulations.
The legislature is bicameral, comprising the upper house (Rajya Sabha) and the lower house (Lok Sabha). The Rajya Sabha is composed of representatives of the states, while the Lok Sabha represents the people. Members of both houses are directly elected by the people.
The judiciary is an independent branch of government and is composed of the Supreme Court, high courts, and lower courts. The Supreme Court is the highest court in India and interprets the Constitution and laws passed by the legislature. It also serves as the protector of fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens.
The Indian legal system is based on the principle of stare decisis, which means that courts must follow the decisions of earlier courts in similar cases. This principle ensures consistency and uniformity in the interpretation of laws.