Japan’s legal system

Japan has a civil law system based largely on the German model. The Japanese Constitution, enacted in 1947, is the fundamental law of the nation and establishes the framework for the legal system. The Japanese government is structured into three branches: the legislative, executive and judicial.

The Legislative branch is responsible for making laws. The National Diet is the highest legislative body in Japan, and is composed of two Houses, the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors. The Diet has the power to pass, amend and repeal laws, and to approve the budget.

The Executive branch is responsible for enforcing the laws. The Cabinet is the highest executive body in Japan and is composed of the Prime Minister and other Ministers of State. The Cabinet is responsible for the overall administration of the government and for implementing the laws.

The Judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and applying the law. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Japan, and is composed of a Chief Justice and 14 Justices. The Supreme Court is the court of final appeal and is responsible for the interpretation and enforcement of the law.

The Japanese legal system also includes a number of lower courts, including the district courts, family courts, summary courts and the special higher courts. In addition, Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each of which has its own local court system. The local courts are responsible for trying criminal cases and civil cases involving disputes between residents of the prefecture.

The legal system in Japan also includes an administrative court system, which is responsible for hearing cases involving government agencies. This system is comprised of the Central Administrative Court and local administrative courts.