Lebanon’s legal system

Lebanon is a civil law jurisdiction that follows a mixed legal system of French civil law, Ottoman law, and Islamic law. The judiciary is composed of a network of courts and tribunals, with the Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation) at the apex of the system. The Lebanese Constitution is the highest source of law, followed by the Lebanese Civil Code and the Lebanese Code of Obligations and Contracts. Other sources of law include international treaties, conventions, and regional agreements, as well as customary law in certain areas.

The judicial system in Lebanon is largely centralized and is divided into two main branches: civil and criminal. The civil courts deal with matters such as contracts, property, family, and civil liberties. The criminal courts are responsible for criminal matters and are divided into three levels: first instance, appeals, and cassation.

Lebanon is a signatory to numerous international treaties and conventions, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Lebanese government has also ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, as well as several regional conventions on human rights.

In addition to the court system, Lebanon has a number of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, including arbitration, mediation, and traditional methods such as Sulh. Arbitration is regulated by the Lebanese Arbitration Law of 1994, and is governed by the Rules of the Beirut Regional Arbitration Center.

Lebanon is a signatory to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention) and the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States (ICSID Convention).