Luxembourg is a civil law country with a constitution based on the French model, which provides for a strong executive and a separate judiciary. The legal system of Luxembourg is based on the Civil Code, which is composed of several codes, such as the Civil Code, the Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure, the Code of Criminal Procedure, the Commercial Code, and the Code of Civil Status.
The Constitution of Luxembourg is the supreme law of the country. It was adopted in 1868 and amended several times since then. The Constitution establishes the basic principles of the legal system and the fundamental rights and freedoms of the people.
The legislature of Luxembourg is the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral body composed of 60 members elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. Its main function is to pass laws and to exercise parliamentary control over the executive.
The executive power is vested in a Council of Ministers, which is presided over by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Grand Duke, who is the Head of State. The Council of Ministers is responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the laws.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Luxembourg. It is the highest court of appeal in the country and its decisions are final. The court is composed of a President, a Vice-President, and other members appointed by the Grand Duke.
In Luxembourg, there are also several specialized courts, such as the Administrative Court, the Labor Court, the Economic Court, and the Special Criminal Court. These courts are responsible for the application of the laws in their respective areas.
Luxembourg is also a member of the European Union, and its laws are subject to the rulings of the European Court of Justice. The European Court of Justice is the highest court in the European Union.