Mongolia is a civil law jurisdiction which follows a Roman-Germanic legal system. The judicial system is based on a civil code and the laws are enacted by the Parliament of Mongolia. The Constitution of Mongolia is the supreme law of the country, and all other laws must not be in conflict with it.
The Mongolian judicial system is composed of a Supreme Court, four regional courts, and 42 district courts, which are all located in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country, and it hears appeals from the regional courts and makes final decisions in civil and criminal matters.
The judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative branches of government, and the judges are appointed by the President, with the advice of the Judicial Council. Judges must possess a law degree and have a minimum of five years’ legal experience.
The legal system of Mongolia is influenced by the civil law tradition, with the main sources of law being the Constitution, laws enacted by the Parliament, and international treaties and conventions. The laws are interpreted by the courts, and the decisions can be appealed to the Supreme Court.
In addition to the courts, there is an independent regulatory body known as the Mongolian Regulatory Agency which is responsible for regulating business activities, environmental protection, and consumer protection. The agency has the power to impose fines and other penalties on businesses which violate the laws.