Nepal is a constitutional monarchy that has a multi-party parliamentary system. The legal system of Nepal is based on a civil law system with the Constitution of Nepal, enacted in 2015, serving as the highest law of the land. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body and is the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution. Nepal also has a separate court system known as the Appellate Courts, which is composed of the Appellate Court and the High Court. There are also local courts in each district.
Nepal’s legal system is largely based on Hindu law, though other religions have been incorporated into the system. The majority of the laws are based on the Muluki Ain, which is a traditional Hindu law code. This code is divided into 18 chapters which cover topics such as criminal law, land law, inheritance law, family law and contract law. The Civil Code of Nepal was adopted in 2020, which is based on the Muluki Ain but also incorporates other sources of law.
Nepal is a signatory to several international treaties, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Nepal is also a member of the World Trade Organization and is a party to the World Intellectual Property Organization.
In addition to the national legal system, Nepal also has a system of local laws and customs. These local laws and customs vary from region to region and are used to resolve disputes between individuals.