The legal system of Sweden is based on civil law, or Roman law, which is a system of law derived from Roman codes and principles rather than common law. It is based on written codes and statutes rather than court decisions and precedent. The main sources of Swedish law are the Instrument of Government, the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression. The Swedish Constitution is the foundation of the rule of law in Sweden.
The legal system is divided into two main parts: public law and private law. Public law deals with the relationship between the state and the individual, while private law deals with the relationships between individuals.
Public law includes criminal law, administrative law, and constitutional law. Criminal law deals with crime and punishment, while administrative law regulates the activities of government agencies. Constitutional law is the set of laws that define the principles of the Swedish government and regulate the relationship between the state and citizens.
Private law covers the laws that govern the relationship between individuals. This includes contract law, family law, and property law. Contract law covers the agreements between two or more parties, while family law covers matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Property law covers the ownership and use of property.
The Swedish legal system also includes international law, which governs the relationship between Sweden and other countries. This includes treaties, conventions, and other international agreements.
The Swedish legal system is supervised by the Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country. It is responsible for making sure that the laws are properly interpreted and applied.