The legal system of Vietnam is based on a civil law system influenced by the French legal system. The legal system is composed of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Civil Code, the Criminal Code, and the Commercial Law, along with other codes and laws.
The Constitution serves as the foundation of the legal system, providing the framework for the government and the basic rights of citizens. The Civil Code of Vietnam is the primary source of civil law, regulating family and succession law, property law, contracts, and torts. The Criminal Code sets forth criminal offenses and penalties. The Commercial Law governs business activities in Vietnam, including company formation, investment, and bankruptcy.
Vietnam’s judicial system includes both civil and criminal courts, with the Supreme People’s Court at the apex. The court system is composed of three levels: the primary court, the intermediate court, and the Supreme People’s Court. The court system is further divided into specialized courts, such as labor and maritime courts. All courts are presided over by judges, who are appointed by the National Assembly.
The Ministry of Justice is the main government body responsible for overseeing the legal system of Vietnam. The ministry is tasked with drafting new legislation, organizing the court system, and handling disputes. Additionally, the Ministry of Justice is responsible for supervising the country’s legal profession and providing legal advice to the government.